Today there is a great article on the BBC website about the inexorable progress of the Sky cycling team under the expert stewardship of Dave Brailsford – see here. The ‘aggregation of marginal gains approach‘ is now well known and can be easily summarised as identifying those small performance factors that, when aggregated together, can have a significant cumulative impact. This can apply to teachers tweaking their pedagogy to transform their practice; students breaking down their tasks to focus on the constituent parts to improve; or school leaders aligning their school priorities. The article takes the process a step forward by focusing on the key developments for moving from good to outstanding as a team.
The first quote from the article that immediately stood out was the following:
“You’ll get more from a £900,000 rider with a coach than you would from a £1m rider without one.”
This seamlessly applies to a school context. Rather than investing in yet more teachers; or seeking the expensive intervention strategy of paying more for ‘top’ teachers, or even paying for extra teachers to make class sizes smaller, we should invest in quality coaching. We should aim to find more of that most crucial, but expensive, commodity for teachers: time. We should help our existing teachers become better, rather than looking to import in super-teachers, or other imported quick fixes. Coaching is a cheap and crucial method in improving our core business, helping teachers improve their pedagogy. We should question how can we develop better coaching?
So how did Brailsford lead team Sky to become “the most admired sports team in the world“? Being well funded helps, and it helps schools. Team Sky stay in the best hotels, with the best pillows etc. – we benefit from having the best school buildings and the best equipment – it is common sense really; however, less expensive marginal gains are also at work.
Hone in on the important data:
“Every turn of the pedal a Team Sky rider makes is recorded by a power meter, analysed using performance software and then benchmarked against Kerrison’s “power curve” models.
Last year, for example, Wiggins’s training was assessed against a template for a Tour/Olympic double. The gaps between these two lines on a graph – where Wiggins was and where he needed to be – were where Team Sky directed what Kerrison describes as “coaching interventions”.
Measuring power and using it as a training tool is not unique to Team Sky – and neither is it new. But what sets them apart is their total faith in it.”
Yes, obviously we are not teaching machines, although our assessment outcomes sometimes make us feel like we do! The lesson here is concentrating on the right data. There are swathes of data models for schools to the point where teachers become swamped. We should simplify our data collection and recording. This post exemplifies using data as a school leader brilliantly, but the rule applies more broadly. We should question what is the best data and how do we use it?
Slow the teaching and learning down, aiming for high quality mastery over quantity:
“But even with squads that large, most teams race all season, go on holiday in the autumn and then start training again in the winter. There is not much room for coaching.
Not at Team Sky, though. Their top riders race fewer days than their rivals and they structure their seasons to accommodate mid-season “training blocks”. For Wiggins, Chris Froome, the rest of the Grand Tour group and even the 10 riders targeting the Cobbled Classics in the spring, that means time off to train at altitude on Tenerife’s Mount Teide.”
Under pressure from OFSTED, curriculum specifications etc. we often try to cover every minute detail of every subject – we often become overly content driven in the fear of missing the minutiae of a potential exam question. What we must do is slow down the learning. There is a movement for this very ideas – see here. Excellent practitioners, such as David Didau have advocated ‘Slow Writing’. In our department, we are moving towards rooting DIRT (Dedicated Improvement and Reflection Time) into our daily pedagogy. Much better to do 80% of a job brilliantly than 100% of it badly! We should reflect on what should we not do – like Dylan Wiliam implores – we should stop doing too many good things! We should question what can we drop out of our curriculum to allow for real depth and quality to occur?
You get what you pay for:
“All teams have costs they cannot avoid – hotels, petrol and so on – but given the correlation between wages and winning, most keep their “operational spend” down to a minimum, typically allocating 90% of their resources to salaries. It is the cycling equivalent of putting the best possible XI on the pitch at the expense of everything else.
At Team Sky, however, that split is 80/20, with greater investment in non-riding staff, research and training camps. “You’ll get more from a £900,000 rider with a coach than you would from a £1m rider without one,” is Brailsford’s rationale.”
Rightly or wrongly (I say wrongly whole-heartedly!), budgets are tight. We should ask the question of every spend in our school: what impact does it have on teaching and learning? This should drive our choices, whether as a subject leader or school leader. People may question the relative wealth of the Sky Team – comparing it to some Wellington or Eton School equivalent. That is true to some degree, but at the head of the innovation team (the ‘Secret Squirrel Club’) is Chris Boardman – a man who devised the world’s fastest bike with the tools in his garage! Great things can still be done on tight budgets, they may just require greater ingenuity! We should question deeply what we spend our money on and we should challenge the government to invest further in top quality education.
“We’ve got good at conference calls,” said Brailsford, adding these are not just any conference calls. These are mandatory Monday morning conference calls, with standardised minutes.
But as good as these virtual meetings are, you cannot beat an old-fashioned, face-to-face chinwag, which is why one of this year’s innovations will be the establishment of a permanent performance base in Nice, staffed by Kerrison and Shaun Stephens, until recently the head coach of the Australian triathlon team.”
The question should be how do we best communicate? How do we best make use of technology to drive improvement in our practice: such as using blogs, email communication, meeting and training time? Again, what should we not do? Are we wasting our time and that of our teachers with excessive meetings? Or, should we adapt our currently meetings to ensure the hone in relentlessly on teaching, learning and pedagogy?
The “elephant in the room” for cycling may well be the spectre of drug cheats that casts a lengthy shadow over achievement. Our ghostly apparitions may be OFSTED, exam boards (and the tricky shenanigans of grade boundaries!) or our curriculum model; but they are things we cannot control – mere apparitions and even media driven crises blown out of true proportion. We need to follow Brailsford’s model and keep the main thing the main thing – refusing such distractions from our core business of teaching and learning.
Today I got to properly embed the concept of #marginalgains into my practice as an effective self-assessment tool. After the fantastic spectacle of the London Olympics I was determined to utilise the powerful narrative of effort and commitment with my students. I began using Olympic anecdotes almost straight away to try to foster a growth mindset with my new students. Beyond my ringing repetition of ‘effort’ being key to success, I felt that the Olympics was simply a passing idea that would gradually fade. After watching ‘Team Sky – Road To Glory’, about the brilliantly successful SKY cycling team, led by their great leader, David Brailsford, I had a Twitter conversation with @fullonlearning and @macn_1, which inspired us all to take the idea further. Suddenly, the narrative of cycling golds and Brailsford’s successful approach to being meticulous about every piece of the puzzle to achieve ‘marginal gains’ became something that could become useful to learning in class. Today I got to apply it beyond simply using the language of #marginalgains, where it became an effective tool for self-assessment.
Twitter once more triggered the next stage of my thinking. I saw last week some great wheel resources, created and used by @liplash_mason, that were applied with real skill as a self-assessment tool: http://bit.ly/yEdi9v
I wanted to use the wheels for my Y12 English Language group, as there are so many margins to improve, with the many linguistic terms and nuanced skills, that it seemed the ideal way to trail the concept. I then thought that I had used the concept of #marginalgains with my Y10 English group in anecdotal form, so it would prove useful to continue using that language as a way for them to reflect upon the skills and knowledge they had gained during the work towards their ‘Moving Image’ English Language GCSE writing assessment. I therefore prepared the followed PowerPoint resource to explicitly introduce the concept – linked to the process of writing (again – the great wheels from @liplah_mason):
Interestingly, the students considered the image ordering task on the PPT with even clearer thinking than I had! They considered having the coach first, then the ‘bum pads’, then the cyclist (Chris Hoy) – as that sequence followed the plan orchestrated by the coach. It was one of those nice moments when the learning takes an unexpected turn.
Students were then asked to note their writing #marginalgains on their photocopied wheel. They were asked to review their class work and their writing from the last three weeks – noting their targets from my marking of their work, to noting the skills we had honed and their knowledge of writing techniques required for the specific task:
Example 3: Colour coded
The students were well focused and really enjoyed completing the wheels, which was a simple but powerful method for them to both review their progress and self- assess their skills and knowledge. They were then asked to colour code their wheel to make relational links between the skills, techniques and their targets. We showed examples of these wheels through Apple TV, using my iPad, and through the ExplainEverything application. The ExplainEverything app allowed me to visually ‘cycle’ their wheels around on the whiteboard to review their targets and give individuals feedback.
The next step, now they have reflected upon their skills and their progress so far with their wheels, is to transfer that knowledge to their GCSE planning sheets later in the week. I think the wheels were highly successful, as they provided a simple but creative method of getting students to reflect and actively self-assess their progress. I want to refine this process further. I will still look to transfer the concept to my AS Language class, creating a #marginalgains display, to give a language to their learning. But, after today’s lesson, I am very positive about the impact of the #marginalgains concept and I’m looking forward to take it further across a span of my classes. Give it a try – it works!